Other eruptions occur at volcanoes within continental interiors such as Ol Doinyo Lengai in Tanzania or on oceanic islands like Hawaii.
Many also take place hidden from view on the sea floor, with some of the most active underwater volcanoes located in the Tonga-Kermadec island arc in the south-west Pacific.
Merapi is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in Indonesia due to its frequent eruptions and densely populated slopes.
This ice-covered volcano has erupted twice since the early settlement of Iceland, including the country’s largest-ever explosive eruption in 1362 and another in 1727-28.
Mexico’s “smoking mountain”, pictured at the top of this article, lies 70km south-east of Mexico City and is the country’s most active volcano.
Snow-covered Villarrica volcano is one of only a small number of volcanoes around the world with an active lava lake.
Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island has spewed basaltic lava almost continuously for 35 years and there is no reason to expect this eruption will end any time soon.